How the Universe Remembers Information

Image credit: NAUTILUS
A “memory matrix” might solve Stephen Hawking’s black-hole paradox.

By George Musser | NAUTILUS

It was one of the great missed connections of physics. In 1965 a particle theorist derived a formula for the collision of elementary particles. Twenty years later two gravitation theorists, using completely different techniques, derived a formula for the collision of stars or black holes. And they were the same formula. The only difference was that the first used “p” to denote momentum and the second used “P”. Harvard physicist Andy Strominger jokes that “a 6-year-old could look at those two papers” and spot the similarity. But evidently no 6-year-old did, so their resemblance went unnoticed until Strominger realized it in 2014.

What the formulas have in common is that they concern how gravity and other forces act on large scales. Strominger and his colleagues have been investigating how they may offer a new and unusual path to unifying the laws of physics. The large-scale behavior of forces turns out to hold as many surprises as the small-scale behavior that physicists traditionally focus on. The approach has also opened a fresh line of attack on a notorious paradox about the fate of information about objects that are swallowed by black holes, first identified by Stephen Hawking in the 1970s. “Andy’s work is very important and will eventually have a large impact on many areas of physics,” says Éanna Flanagan of Cornell University.

The gravity side of Strominger’s work goes back to a perplexing discovery in 1962 by gravitation theorists Hermann Bondi, M.G. van der Burg, and A.W. Kenneth Metzner and, separately, Rainer Sachs. They sought to pinpoint what makes Einstein’s special theory of relativity so special. The theory specifies how different observers moving at a constant velocity relative to one another can disagree on the length of objects and the time between events. The full general theory of relativity, meanwhile, extends that principle to observers moving at varying velocities. It specifies how space and time are woven together to form a four-dimensional spacetime fabric that bends and warps around massive gravitating bodies. The textbooks say that the general theory reduces to special relativity when you go far—ideally, infinitely far—from a planet, star, or other gravitating body. Way out there, gravity fades to nothingness, and the usually floppy spacetime continuum should harden into a rigid framework. Because gravity diminishes with distance, planets and stars are nearly independent of one another, and what happens in our solar system depends very little on the rest of the galaxy.

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